Transportation and Settlement Patterns

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The Basic

SUBJECT

World Geography, United States History

 

TARGETED GRADE LEVELS

Middle or High School

 

STANDARDS

Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Social Studies

  • §113.43.6(b) World Geography Studies—The student understands the types, patterns, and processes of settlement. The student is expected to explain the processes that have caused changes in settlement patterns, including urbanization, transportation, access to and availability of resources, and economic activities.

Common Core State Standards Initiative

  • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
  • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
  • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.3 Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history/social studies (e.g., how a bill becomes law, how interest rates are raised or lowered).

 

The Lesson

This lesson blends the Voices Across Time strategies and curriculum with the format of a document-based question essay. The strategies used from Voices Across Time allows the students to really examine songs as primary and secondary sources of information. The document-based question essay demands higher order thinking skills of the students where they must analyze sources of information, use their own knowledge of social studies, and compose a well-written response to the question asked. Students should be able to understand and defend mankind’s reasons for settlement in specific places. This lesson asks students to listen to several songs related to transportation and to look at changes in settlement patterns caused by transportation. Examples used are the Erie Canal in New York state, the railroads during the late 19th century, and Route 66 connecting St. Louis, Missouri to San Bernardino, California. Students will be given songs, maps, and passages to analyze for evidence to answer the document-based question How does transportation contribute to changes in settlement patterns?

 

This lesson unit allows students to use higher order thinking skills while exploring the role that transportation plays in the settlement patterns of people. Students will be able to answer why people move to and settle in certain areas of the world. Students will also be able to use documents to answer a question in paragraph form using textual evidence from the given documents. This is known as the document-based question or DBQ. Each of the songs along with their related materials gives students information about how transportation contributes to changes in settlement patterns. The songs also show changes in transportation over time: canal system, railroads, and state highways.

 

 

OBJECTIVES

Using document analysis, the student will be able to write an expository paper citing textual evidence from songs and documents to answer the question “How does transportation contribute to changes in settlement patterns?”

 

RESOURCES/MATERIALS:

Songs:

  • “Crossing the Grand Sierras” composed by Henry Clay Work 1870, performed by New York Vocal Arts Ensemble on Listen to the Mockingbird, New York: Arabesque, provided courtesy of Arabesque Records, © 1986. Used by permission.
  • “(Get Your Kicks On) Route 66” composed by Bobby Troup 1946, performed by Nat King Cole Trio on The Best of the Nat King Cole Trio: The Vocal Classics (1942-46), Hollywood: Capitol Records, Inc., © 1995.
  • “(Get Your Kicks On) Route 66” composed by Bobby Troup 1946, performed by Chuck Berry on Disney Pixar’s Cars Soundtrack: Walt Disney Records/Pixar, © 2006.
  • “(Get Your Kicks On) Route 66” composed by Bobby Troup 1946, performed by John Mayer on Disney Pixar’s Cars Soundtrack: Walt Disney Records/Pixar, © 2006.
  • “The Erie Canal” composed by Thomas S. Allen, 1905, performed by Pete Seeger on American Favorite Ballads Vol. 3, Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, © 2004.

 

Background Sources:

  • “Crossing the Grand Sierras”. Voices Across Time: American History Through Music. Center for American Music: University of Pittsburgh ©2004.
    This source gives background information, lyrics, and sheet music for “Crossing the Grand Sierras” among many other pieces of music.
  • Dedek, Peter B. Hip to the Trip: A Cultural History of Route 66. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2007.
    This source was used for historical information regarding automobiles and the state highway system during the early 20th century in the United States.
  • Krim, Arthur. Route 66: Iconography of the American Highway. Santa Fe, NM: Center for American Places, 2005.
    This source was used for lyrics, images, maps and historical information regarding “(Get Your Kicks On) Route 66” and its composer, Bobby Troup.
  • Sandburg, Carl. The American Songbag. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1927.
    This source gives background information, lyrics, and notation for “The Erie Canal”.

 

Additional Resources

  • Finding Patterns graphic organizer. Voices Across Time: American History Through Music. Center for American Music: University of Pittsburgh ©2004.
    This source is used during Day 2 of the lesson when students find patterns of music, lyrics, and transportation evident in the song “The Erie Canal”.
  • Heritage Corridor Map. Erie Canalway National Heritage Corridor website. http://www.eriecanalway.org/explore_things-to-know_brochures-maps.htm. ©2008. Accessed July 15, 2013.
  • Map of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe R.R. Western Section, Chicago: Rand McNally & Co., 1889; from an Inventor’s Supplement, Vol. XLVII; January, 1889.
    This source allows students to contemplate why people settled their towns in specific locations, like along the railroads and rivers. While analyzing this map, students will be able to figure out the significance of access to transportation for settlement patterns.
  • Plotting the Story graphic organizer. Voices Across Time: American History Through Music. Center for American Music: University of Pittsburgh ©2004.
    This source is used during Day 3 of the lesson when students plot the story of the song “Crossing the Grand Sierras”.
  • Song Comparison graphic organizer. Voices Across Time: American History Through Music. Center for American Music: University of Pittsburgh ©2004.
    This source is used during Day 4 of the lesson when students compare two of the three recordings of “(Get Your Kicks On) Route 66”.

 

Discussion Questions and Vocabulary

  • What was the message the composer intended for his listeners?
  • What do you think this song is really about?
  • How did the Erie Canal contribute to changes in settlement patterns?
  • How did the railroad contribute to changes in settlement patterns?
  • How did automobiles and highways contribute to changes in settlement patterns?
  • How does transportation contribute to changes in settlement patterns?

 

Procedure

Day 1 – Listening Activity – Three Versions of “(Get Your Kicks On) Route 66”

  • Students will listen to the Nat King Cole Trio version of “(Get Your Kicks On) Route 66”. While listening students will complete the following sentence stems on their “Listening With A Purpose” graphic organizers:
    • The melody (tune) is like…
    • The rhythm (beat) is like…
    • The voices and instruments sound like…
    • Words that stand out are…
  • After completing the first row or their “Listening With A Purpose” graphic organizers, students will pair with a classmate and share their thoughts on their first song. Students may add to their own graphic organizers based on what their classmates may have shared with them.
  • Students will listen to the Chuck Berry version of “(Get Your Kicks On) Route 66” and repeat the same steps as above with a different classmate.
  • Lastly, students will listen to the John Mayer version of “(Get Your Kicks On) Route 66” recorded for the Disney/Pixar movie Cars and repeat the same steps as above with a third classmate.
  • As a wrap-up of Day 1, the teacher should facilitate a discussion using questions like:
    • What was the message the composer intended for his listeners?
    • What do you think this song is really about?
    • Which of the three (3) versions did you like best and why?
  • Students will turn in their graphic organizers as their exit tickets for the day.

 

Day 2 – “The Erie Canal” – How did the Erie Canal contribute to changes in settlement patterns?

  • Before listening to “The Erie Canal”, the teacher should introduce the question How does transportation contribute to changes in settlement patterns? Create list of preliminary answers on chart paper specific to each class period to revisit at the end of class together and on days 3, 4, and 5.
  • Students will listen to Pete Seeger’s recording of “The Erie Canal” with copies of the lyrics. They will work in pairs to complete the VAT strategy graphic organizer “Finding Patterns” using the column headings of Music, Lyrics, and Transportation.
  • Pairs of students will then work in small groups of four (4) to discuss using their graphic organizers and the Heritage Corridor Map of New York state denoting the Erie Canal.
  • Finally, the teacher will lead a short discussion with the students to get them to answer the question “How did the Erie Canal contribute to changes in settlement patterns?” citing specific examples from the song, “The Erie Canal” and the Heritage Corridor Map.

 

Day 3 – "Crossing the Grand Sierras" – How did the railroad contribute to changes in settlement patterns?

  • Before listening to “Crossing the Grand Sierras”, the teacher should lead a short discussion where the students can contribute new answers to the question How does transportation contribute to changes in settlement patterns? on the chart paper started during class on Day 2.
  • Students will listen to “Crossing the Grand Sierras” from Voices Across Time disc 3 track 11 once without the lyrics then participate in a large group discussion with the class about what they heard.
  • Next students will listen to the song a second time (with a copy of the lyrics provided in the Voices Across Time curriculum) and work independently on the VAT graphic organizer called “Plotting the Story”. Students should think about how towns grew along the Erie Canal and what probably happened along the railroads when they became the main mode of transportation in the mid to late 19th century.
  • After completing the graphic organizer, students will discuss with a partner. Then analyze a map of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe R.R. Western Section. Students should notice how most of the towns and cities in the states featured on the map coincide with the line of the railroad and/or sources of water. Ask students “What is the significance of the towns on this map? Why do you think the towns exist where they do?”
  • With the same partner, students will brainstorm together the answers and textual evidence to answer the following questions: How did the railroad contribute to changes in settlement patterns? How does transportation contribute to changes in settlement patterns?
  • Again, students will turn in their graphic organizers with brainstorming on the back as they leave class for the day.

 

Day 4 – "(Get Your Kicks On) Route 66" – Composer Bobby Troup – using Listening Activity Guide from Day 1 – How did automobiles and highways contribute to changes in settlement patterns?

  • The teacher should again open class with a short discussion about “The Erie Canal” and “Crossing the Grand Sierras” to guide the students toward a comprehensive answer for the document-based question How does transportation contribute to changes in settlement patterns? Students should give textual evidence from their document analysis including the songs to answer the question. These answers may be recorded on the chart paper list started on Day 2.
  • Next the teacher should return to the students their completed “Listening With a Purpose” graphic organizers from Day 1 along with the lyrics to “(Get Your Kicks On) Route 66”.
  • Students will receive a copy of the “Song Comparison” graphic organizer from the Voices Across Time curriculum to fill out independently.
  • After students review their initial notes on the three separate recordings of “(Get Your Kicks On) Route 66” from Day 1, the teacher will ask the students to choose two of the recordings to compare and contrast on their “Song Comparison” graphic organizer.
  • The teacher will play all three recordings again for the students and give them approximately ten to fifteen minutes to fill out their graphic organizers.
  • Once most students seem to be finished, the teacher will lead a discussion to allow students to answer the following questions: How did automobiles and highways contribute to changes in settlement patterns? How does transportation contribute to changes in settlement patterns?
  • Before students leave, the teacher should explain that the next class period will be spent writing a document-based question essay answering the question How does transportation contribute to changes in settlement patterns? and the students may only use their graphic organizers and notes from class. Students may also use a self-generated outline to help them organize their thoughts during class the next day.

 

Day 5 – Document-Based Question Essay – Students will write an essay to answer the question How does transportation contribute to changes in settlement patterns?

 

Closure:

Using textual evidence and document analysis, students will answer the question How does transportation contribute to changes in settlement patterns?in a document-based question essay.

 

Evaluation:

The teacher will determine students’ mastery of the intended objective and standards based upon their graphic organizers, classroom participation, and document-based question essays.

 

Extension Activities:

  • The teacher could show a clip from the Disney/Pixar movie Cars that depicts the decline of Route 66 and ask students to discuss solutions to change the settlement patterns for the benefit of the old highway.
  • The teacher could also ask students to project settlement patterns of the future. What will cause the next changes in settlement patterns?

 

Reflection:

  • The intended subject area for this lesson is World Geography because that is the subject I taught this last year and will teach in the upcoming school year. It was not easy to take a project like Voices Across Time: American History Through Music and develop a lesson for World Geography. Many American history themes came to mind, but none would be helpful to me in a World Geography classroom this year. At first I tried to develop a lesson about American popular culture and how it has influenced cultures around the world. This ended up being much too broad. I tried to narrow it, but it didn’t help. Next I tried to develop a lesson about physical geography. I thought there would be many songs I could use about mountains, valleys, forests, oceans, etc., but the more I looked the less I found. Finally, I revisited my state standards and realized that settlement patterns and transportation would be a great topic and foundation on which to build a document-based question, which is one of my favorite instructional strategies.
  • Students will be able to take songs, passages, visual aids, and maps, and write an effective argument to answer a question that is asked in World Geography, World History, and United States History: How does transportation contribute to changes in settlement patterns?
  • Attachments:

 

Erie Canalway National Heritage Corridor

ErieCanalwayMap.jpg

 


 

Map of the Atchison Topeka, and Santa Fe R.R. Western Section

Map of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe R.R. Western Section.jpg


Route 66 Trip Bobby and Cynthia Troup.jpg

 

“Between 1900 and 1940, automobiles gradually overtook the passenger railroads and came to dominate transportation and tourism in the United States. The number of automobiles rose dramatically. In 1905 Americans had registered only approximately 78,000 vehicles, but by 1910 that number climbed to 458,000. In 1921 alone, Americans purchased over 1.6 million cars, and by the late 1920s Americans had registered a total of over 23 million.”

— p. 28, Peter B. Dedek, Hip to the Trip: A Cultural History of Route 66, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 2007.

 

 

 

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